Love for the vine and its solar gifts comes from time immemorial. And today, gardeners respect this amazing plant: they carefully grow it, groom and cherish it, so that later you can fully enjoy the fruits of its unique taste or drink a glass of good wine with friends. The grape variety with the tempting name Krasotka was heard already in this century. Unusual bunches can now be found in many gardens.
According to botanical terminology, Krasotka grapes are not a variety, but a hybrid form of grapes. It was bred in 2004 by the famous test breeder E.G. Pavlovsky by pollination of the parent variety Victoria with a mixture of pollen from Amur and European hybrids.
The resulting hybrid form inherited the best qualities of the mother variety:
But, in comparison with the original variety, Krasotka also has a number of advantages:
As a result, the growers got an excellent table variety with amazing fruits, distinguished by an unusual color and a pleasant, refreshing bite. Thanks to these qualities, the grape got its name - Beauty.
The variety justifies its name by its very attractive appearance and taste of berries.
Grape Beauty has a number of undoubted advantages:
As you know, there are no ideal plants in nature. So Beauty has some minor flaws:
The beauty has bisexual flowers, so she does not need additional pollination
Grapes are a thermophilic perennial vine, so it is important to correctly determine the site for its cultivation.
Vineyards need good lighting throughout the day.
Lowlands and hollows are not suitable for cultivation, as dampness accumulates in them, and there is a real danger of damage to the vineyards by winter frosts, as well as sudden frosts in autumn and late spring.
The density of the soil greatly affects the growth and development of the roots of grapes. For example, roots do not grow on very dense soils. Therefore, before planting seedlings, it is necessary to improve the composition of the heavy soil by adding sand and black soil to the planting pit.
When planting a seedling, the depth of placement of the root system of grapes in the planting hole (about 60 cm) should be maintained and when filling the hole, leave 15 cm to the soil level
The process of planting grapes is simple, but has some features:
The best period for planting seedlings is early spring, before bud break and activation of growth processes. When the threat of frost has passed, vegetative seedlings with a closed root system are ready for planting. The development of vines is highly dependent on the heating of the soil and the surrounding air: the plant goes into a dormant state when the temperature drops below 10aboutC. Therefore, seedlings are best planted when the soil warms up above 15ºFROM.
The process of cultivating grapes includes regular loosening of the soil directly under the plants and in the aisles, destruction of weeds, watering, correct formation and timely pruning of bushes, prevention of fungal diseases. In regions where covering varieties are grown, shoots are protected from frostbite in winter and during sudden thaws.
Watering the grapes is especially necessary in the first year after planting. In the presence of natural precipitation, irrigation should be normalized at the rate of 1 time per week.
In dry weather, moisten the soil under the grapes daily.
In the second and subsequent years of cultivation, two types of basic irrigation are used: moisture-replenishing (until bud break) and vegetative (during the period of intensive growth). 10 days before the final ripening of the crop, watering should be stopped completely to prevent cracking of the berries.
Maintaining a constant level of moisture in the soil is ensured by mulching. At the same time, it will get rid of weeds and increase the growth and yield of the vine. For mulching, rotted manure, peat or humus are used, as well as black plastic wrap.
Top dressing of grapes is carried out annually during the growing season and fruiting in several stages.
The grape yield is regulated by the so-called load of the bush. This is the number of fruiting shoots (eyes) that are left on the vine directly during the pruning process. If, as a result of strong cutting of the eyes, there are few left, then the load will be weak. This will entail a decrease in yield. The congestion of the bush is also not useful for the plant. In the process of growth and development of the vine, the optimal value of the load is determined. For a two-year-old plant, it is equal to 50% of the rate recommended for fruiting bushes, for a three-year-old plant, it is 75–80% of this rate.
To obtain a stable harvest, the vine needs to be pruned annually. In autumn, after leaf fall, the stems are shortened to the level of the 3rd or 4th bud. In a two-year-old plant, four highly developed and healthy shoots are left, and the rest are cut out. Then they are shortened to the 5th kidney. A three-year-old properly pruned bush bears 4 fruiting vines. To build strength, the number of fruit stems is increased to an average of three per vine, with an overall increase in the number of vines. Pruning of fruiting shoots is usually performed for 6-8 eyes, but it is allowed for 4-6 eyes.
Since the grape is a vine and grows long shoots during the growing season, its biennial and fruiting shoots are fixed on supports. When breeding grapes in a personal or summer cottage, the following support systems are used: trellis, arbor, wall, stake. The most common is the tapestry system.
The trellis is a structure of pillars (reinforced concrete, metal or wood) and wire (preferably galvanized). The shoots attached to the trellis are sufficiently and evenly ventilated, receive the same amount of heat and sunlight. In addition, the location of the stems above the ground creates convenience for the gardener when caring for the plants and harvesting.
Fastening grape shoots to the trellis allows them to develop freely and receive enough light and heat
The Krasotka variety has an average resistance to fungal diseases. The greatest danger to the plant is represented by mildew, gray rot, anthracnose and powdery mildew.
The first sign of mildew is the appearance of red-brown spots on the surface of the leaves, and white bloom on the back. The fungus infects the leaves, young shoots, then passes to the fruit. The affected parts of the plant dry up and fall off, the berries become shriveled and also gradually dry out right in the bunch. The spread of the fungus is favored by high humidity inside the bush and its thickening. Mildew strongly weakens the plant and reduces yields. To combat the fungus, the drugs Ridomil Gold and Amistar are used.
With mildew, a white coating appears on the back of the leaf.
Disease of grapes with gray rot is easy to determine by brown spots with a specific coating of an ashy shade. Plaque is formed by fungal spores, which in hot weather (22-28ºC) and high air humidity quickly affect the entire plant. In this case, the leaves of the grapes dry up and fall off, and the shoots, especially young ones, stop growing and die off. The fungus is active during the entire growing season of the bush and is capable of infecting inflorescences and ripe fruits. The flowers turn brown and fall off, and the berries are covered with a kind of gray spore dust and rot.
The fight against gray rot disease consists in spraying the bushes with fungicides Ronilan, Rovral, Sumileks, Euparen. It is advisable to carry out the processing three times a season: before flowering (in May), before the formation of ovaries (in June) and at the beginning of fruit ripening (in July). It is also effective to use folk remedies for processing plants: a solution of baking soda or potassium permanganate of a dark pink color.
Typical signs of gray rot: brownish-whitish bloom on the leaves and rotting wrinkled berries
Oidium (powdery mildew) is very dangerous for many fruiting plants. It is expressed in a characteristic whitish bloom on leaves and shoots, which appears mainly in spring. After a month, the plaque acquires a grayish-ash color. At the same time, the berries begin to rot, crack and fall off. Powderyium appears with high humidity and soil, as well as with excessive density of grape bushes. Treatment of plants with Thanos, Profit, sulfur-containing solutions (for example, colloidal sulfur) helps to avoid the disease or reduce the level of negative consequences if the fungus still affects the grapes.
From folk remedies, an infusion of wood ash is used in a mixture with laundry soap, which is sprayed on plants.
Oidium spores leave marks on all parts of the bush, including leaves, shoots and fruits.
Anthracnose is also among the fungal diseases to which Krasotka grapes are susceptible. It appears on the leaves as rust-colored spots, which leads to the death of the leaf tissue and the appearance of holes. The leaves dry up and fall off. On the shoots, the fungus forms ulcers, brown spots, the branches turn black and break. Affected young shoots are deformed and become brittle. On green fruits, ulcers appear in the form of spots of purple or dark red color. The berries crack and rot. Anthracnose spores are carried by insects and wind. The disease spreads especially actively at air temperatures above 25ºC, after rains with hail and waterlogging of the soil as a result of excessive watering.
To protect grape bushes from anthracnose manifestations in spring, before bud break, shoots should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture in the proportion: 700 g of the drug per 10 l of water. Copper-containing agents (copper oxychloride, copper sulfate), 1–3% Nitrafen solution are also used to treat plants.
Anthracnose causes berries to rot
Ripe bunches of grapes are often attacked by birds and wasps, which are very fond of eating sweet berries, especially those cracked after rain. The most effective way to protect against birds is a small bag made of gauze or muslin, which is worn over the bunches. Wasps, on the other hand, often gnaw through gauze. Therefore, to protect against wasps, you can spray the shoots with a solution of mustard powder (200 g of powder per bucket of water).
Despite the relatively high frost resistance, the Krasotka variety has not yet been well studied and tested in this direction, and therefore requires mandatory plant protection for the winter period. This is especially true for areas with little snow and frosty winters, when the bushes cannot winter reliably under high snow drifts. To protect the root system and shoots, after the autumn pruning, a hole 10-15 cm deep is made around the bush, which is filled with a thick layer of sawdust or peat, and covered with soil from above to ground level. Vines are placed on the litter prepared in this way and covered with protective material on top. This method of protection is most suitable for young plants.
Mature vines protect from the cold winter by bending them to the ground. To prevent the plants from touching the ground, it is advisable to put boards, wooden blocks, non-woven material under them. The vine removed from the trellis and trimmed is carefully twisted and laid on the prepared surfaces, fixing with hooks or arcs. From above, the shoots are covered with burlap, non-woven fabric or polypropylene bags in several layers. You can also use pine spruce branches. In any case, the space inside must be breathable, so they cannot be covered with foil. Wooden boards, slate, linoleum, roofing material or polycarbonate sheets are laid on top of the covered plants. The edges of the structure are securely fixed with bricks or simply covered with a layer of earth. In winter, it is useful to additionally throw snow on the shelter, increasing the height of the snowdrift.
To protect the grapes from frost, they are bent to the ground and covered
With the advent and beginning of widespread breeding, the Krasotka variety is in demand among gardeners. Its unique taste and visual appeal, good disease resistance and unpretentious cultivation determine the demand for Beauty. And today we continue to study the experience of breeding this variety in different climatic zones and on different types of soil.
My name is Valeria, and I am an electrical engineer by profession. But I really enjoy writing articles on various topics of interest to me: nature, pets, travel, cooking. Over time, it turned into a hobby.
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