Diseases and pests of zucchini


Read the previous part. ← Growing marrow in the open field

Zucchini viral diseases

Zucchini variety Bumblebee

They mainly affect the leaf apparatus, reducing the photosynthetic activity of the leaves.

On a vegetable marrow

more common are cucumber mosaic and pumpkin mosaic.

Cucumber mosaic. It appears on young leaves in the form of greenish-yellow mosaic spots. As the disease progresses, leaf curling is observed and the formation of small tubercles, bulges between the veins on them, giving the surface of the leaf a corrugated appearance. Following this, a pronounced yellow or green spotting develops, accompanied by deformation and curliness of the leaves.

Internodes are shortened, plant growth is greatly delayed. Zucchini plants, which are largely affected by the disease, are 2-3 times lagging behind healthy specimens in the habitus of the bush and practically do not give a marketable crop. The virus is transferred from diseased plants to healthy ones

different types of aphids

... The pathogen overwinters in the roots

perennial weeds

- reservators of infection. Infection is usually not transmitted by seeds.
Control measures: the destruction of perennial weeds and the control of aphids.

Pumpkin mosaic. Also lightens the color of the leaves to yellow-green. Initially, the ends of the veins stand out along the edges of the leaf as a result of the lagging growth of the leaf blade. Then mottling, curl appear. The leaf pulp and the thinnest veins fall out, leaving only thick veins with a narrow strip of leaf pulp along them. The pumpkin mosaic virus is seed transmitted and persists for several years.
Control measures: warming up the seeds for three days at a temperature of + 50 ... + 60 ° С.

Fungal diseases

Powdery mildew

Powdery mildew. One of the most common diseases. First of all, it affects old leaves, gradually moving to younger ones. With a strong spread of the disease, the spots merge, forming a solid white bloom not only on the leaves, but also on the stems. Affected leaves turn brown and dry.

On the mealy plaque, which is the mycelium of the causative agent of the disease, a mass of conidia develops. They spread the disease to other plants during the growing season. The period from the moment of infection until the first signs of infection appear is three to four days. The causative agents of the disease persist in the form of hibernating fruit bodies on plant debris and weeds and serve as a source of infection in the new season.

Control measures: burning of affected plants, removal of plant residues and weeds, deep digging of the soil.

Downy mildew
, or peronosporosis. It affects leaves on plants of any age, starting from seedlings. On the affected leaves, yellowish-green spots of a round or angular shape are formed on the upper side. They gradually turn brown, dry up, crumble. On the spots on the underside of the leaf, a gray-purple bloom appears - sporulation of the fungus. The development of the disease intensifies with frequent fogs, abundant dew, in protected ground - with high air humidity. The main primary source of the disease is the soil, where the pathogen can persist for several years.

Control measures:
observance of crop rotation, in protected ground - disinfection or soil change, frequent ventilation.

White rot

White rot. Affects stems, leaf stalks and fruits. A white flocculent coating of the fungus appears on the affected areas. Sick fruits soften and turn into a mushy mass. The disease spreads more strongly in cool weather and thickening of plants, in protected ground - when irrigated with cold water. The causative agent hibernates in the form of sclerotia in the ground.

Control measures: removal and destruction of the affected parts of the plant, dusting the primary foci of the disease with lime or crushed coal; alternation of cultures; change of soil, watering with warm water and regular ventilation in a protected ground.

Gray rot. It manifests itself on young ovaries. They first become watery, then become covered with a gray coating. The disease is most harmful in film shelters; outdoors - during prolonged cool rainy or cloudy weather. The causative agent of the disease, once on the soil, remains in it for 1-2 years and is the source of the main infection.

Control measures:
alternation of crops in open ground, in protected ground - disinfection or soil change; treatment of the affected areas of the plant with a mixture of copper sulfate and chalk (1: 2).

Root rot. The disease is widespread in protected ground. It manifests itself in the fruiting phase by decay of the roots and root collar. The roots darken, become rotten, soften; the lower leaves turn yellow and the plant withers. The development of the disease is facilitated by frequent feeding with organic fertilizers, high soil moisture, watering with cold water.

Control measures: observance of agricultural techniques, disinfection of soils in film shelters, maintenance

optimal soil moisture regime

.

Anthracnose

Anthracnose. It affects all aboveground parts of the plant: leaves, stems, fruits. Yellowish-brown spots form on the leaves, which increase with the development of the disease. Infection from the leaves spreads to the stems and fruits. The affected leaves curl and dry out, weeping spots with a slimy coating appear on the stems. Impressed spots form on the fruits, they shrivel. During the growing season, the disease is spread by the conidia of the fungus. The pathogen overwinters on plant debris, the infection can be transmitted with seeds.

Control measures: removal of plant residues, dressing of seeds before sowing and processing them with a 0.2% solution of micronutrient fertilizers (boron, copper, manganese), disinfection of greenhouses and shelters with bleach, removal of diseased plants.

Olive spot. The first signs of the disease appear on fruits in the form of small watery spots, which quickly increase to 4-5 mm in diameter. The spots gradually deepen into the idea of ​​ulcers and, at high air humidity, become covered with a velvety grayish-olive bloom.

Irregular yellow-brown spots are formed on the leaves. The leaf tissue in these places then falls out. Infection spreads by rain, wind, irrigation, particles of contaminated soil. The pathogen is preserved on plant debris, in the soil, on wooden structures.

Control measures: destruction of plant residues, crop rotation, disinfection of wooden structures with bleach, removal of affected plant parts.

Zucchini pests

Spider mite

Spider mite. It affects squash plants when cultivated under film shelters. Mites appear on plants with the onset of warm weather. They live and feed on the back of the leaf, sucking out cell sap. At first, light green dots appear on the leaf, then the leaf becomes spotty, and from the lower side it is tightened with a spider web.

With severe damage, the leaves dry out. The tick is a very small insect, its body is 0.3-0.5 mm long, elongated-oval. It multiplies very quickly, giving about 15 generations per year. Females of the tick overwinter in groups under plant debris, dry debris, in the cracks of the wooden frames of shelters.

Control measures: destruction of plant residues and debris, disinfection of wooden frames. When the pest spreads, the plants are sprayed with a decoction of dry leaves and garlic scales (150 g per 10 liters of water, insist for 1 day) or an infusion of onion scales (half a bucket of scales is poured into 10 liters of hot water, insisted for 1 day, filtered and diluted with water 1: 2) ... For spraying, an infusion of potato tops, black henbane, and common dope is also used. For better adhesion of solutions to the underside of the sheet, 30 g of laundry soap is dissolved in them.

Melon aphid.
Sucking insect. It settles in colonies on the underside of leaves, sucking juices out of them. Affected leaves wrinkle and curl. The plant lags behind in growth, and dies if severely damaged. Aphids reproduce asexually, very quickly, giving up to 20 generations during the growing season. It hibernates on weed leaves and plant debris.

Control measures: destruction of weeds and plant debris; when spreading on plants - spraying with an infusion of tobacco dust (1 part by weight is poured with 10 parts of water, infused for a day, the infusion is filtered and diluted with water 1: 3) or infusion

yarrow

(1 kg of dry plants is poured with 10 liters of hot water, infused for two days).

Sprout fly. Fly larvae damage germinating seeds and seedlings, causing their death. The fly brings the greatest damage in the cold summer. The fly is gray, 3-5 mm long, flies out in spring, lays eggs in damp places, near poorly sealed manure. After 2-10 days, the larvae appear, after 12-16 days they pupate. During the season, it gives 2-3 generations. Pupae of flies overwinter in the soil.

Read the next part. Growing zucchini in film shelters →

Tatiana Piskunova,
candidate of agricultural sciences,
VIR named after N.I. Vavilova


Read all parts of the article "How to grow a high yield of zucchini fruits"
- Part 1. Zucchini, varieties and growing conditions
- Part 2. Growing marrow outdoors
- Part 3. Diseases and pests of zucchini
- Part 4. Growing marrow in film shelters

Pests and diseases of peppers and eggplants. Control measures.

Pests of pepper and eggplant.

Aphid- into the most dangerous pest of pepper and eggplant. Aphids appear on leaves, stems, flowers and feed on plant sap.

Control measures. Treatment of plants with the domestic drug "Fosbecid" at the rate of 5 ml per 5 liters of water or with the drug "Iskra" (1 tablet per 10 liters of water). Sprayed before and after flowering.

During fruiting, it is impossible to process. From folk remedies, the following solution is used: 1 glass of wood ash or 1 glass of tobacco dust is poured into a 10-liter bucket, then poured with hot water and left for a day.

Before spraying, the solution must be stirred well, filtered and added 1 tablespoon of liquid soap. Spray the plant in the morning, preferably from a sprayer.

Spider mite sucks the juice from the underside of the leaves.

Control measures. An effective folk remedy: take a glass of minced garlic or onions and dandelion leaves, a tablespoon of liquid soap, dilute in 10 liters of water, filter, separating the pulp, and spray the plants at any stage of development. Can be treated with "Karbofos" (60 g of powder per 10 liters of water), as well as a solution of "Phosbecid" (5 ml per 5 liters of water). Consumption of 1 liter of a solution of one of the indicated preparations per 10 m 2.

Naked slugsShellfish, no shell, slippery. They breed in humid places, gnaw at leaves and damage fruits, which then rot.

Measuresfight. Keep the plantings clean, the grooves around the beds with plantings, pollinate with fresh lime or a mixture of lime, ash and tobacco dust. When watering, try not to pour water into the grooves. In hot, sunny weather, during the day, it is necessary to loosen to a depth of 3-5 cm. Loosening of the soil is accompanied by pollination with ground hot pepper (black or red) at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 1-2 m 2 or dry mustard (1 teaspoon per 1 m 2 ). e An excellent result is obtained by the use of metaldehyde in granules (30 g per 10 m 2).

Make a shelter with burdock leaves. During the day, slugs will climb into them and stay there until nightfall. In the evening, all that remains is to collect them.

Colorado beetle- one of the most dangerous pests. Length 7-16 mm, yellow-brown with dark stripes. Eggs are orange, oblong. The larva is orange-red or yellow, with black spots on the sides and a black head. They settle on dope, henbane, nightshade.

They hibernate in the soil where they ate and lived in the summer. Appear in early summer. They eat the leaves of plants and immediately lay eggs on them. The larvae also actively eat the leaves. Then they go into the soil and pupate. Then adult beetles appear. During the summer, there may be 1-3 generations.

Control measures... Beetles and their larvae are collected by hand and then burned.

A special solution is prepared (for 10 liters of water, take 0.5 kg of finely chopped wormwood tops, 1 glass of wood ash and 1 tablespoon of liquid soap. Pour all the ingredients with hot water, stir well and insist for 3-5 hours, filter and spray the tops with the aim prevention, as well as when beetles and their larvae appear.

It is possible to reduce the number of beetles by morning pollination with wood ash (clean, sifted) at the rate of 1-2 tbsp. spoons per 1 m 2. Pollinated after 3-4 days.

Of the finished products, the most effective are Sonet, Confidor, Iskra. Also effective are "Regent", "Tsitkor", "Tsimbush", "Sherpa", "Karate", "Kinmix".

DISEASES OF PEPPER AND EGGPLANTS.

Blackleg- it manifests itself especially strongly at high soil and air humidity, as well as at low temperatures. With this disease, the basal stalk is damaged: it softens, becomes thinner and rots. Often the disease develops during the period of growing seedlings due to the thickening of crops.

Measuresfight. Adjust temperature and watering. In the event of this disease, the soil must be dried, loosened and sprinkled with wood ash or the dust of crushed charcoal. You can completely get rid of the black leg if you water the plants with the "Barrier" solution (2-3 caps per 1 liter of water) or with the "Hom" preparation (40 g per 10 liters of water) on an area of ​​100 m 2.

wilt disease of tomatoes and peppers

Wilt disease - manifests itself in shedding leaves. The cause may be fungal diseases: fusarium, sclerocinia. If you cut a piece of the stem near the root collar, then brown vascular bundles are visible.

Measuresfight. Sick, wilted plants are removed and burned, the soil is loosened, watered rarely and only in the morning. The next year, peppers and eggplants are not planted in this place.

Sometimes lilac shades appear on the fruits of pepper. This is not a disease, but a violation of the temperature regime when the air temperature drops below 12 ° C. In this case, it is imperative to cover the plants with plastic wrap or covering material lutrasil, agril, etc.

From the black leg and wilting, the plants are watered under the root with the bacterial preparation "Zaslon" (3 caps per 1 liter of water) or "Barrier" (5 tablespoons per 10 liters of water).

Mosaic- Viral disease. A mosaic appears on the leaves - light green and dark green spots alternating in a different order. Sometimes the leaf wrinkles. Fruits are also covered with spots, sometimes swelling forms on them. If you do not take action, the plant may die. The infection is transmitted through seeds.

Field sow thistle can also serve as a source of infection. The disease is also tolerated by aphids.

Control measures. Before planting, the seeds are disinfected. Sick plants are destroyed. The plantings are kept clean, there should be no sow thistle next to the garden. The soil is disinfected (50 g of copper sulfate must be diluted in 10 liters of water). Consumption rate 1 liter per 10 m 2. Tillage is carried out in spring and autumn after harvest.


Pests
The pests of squash and squash include, in addition to their own, pests that damage other crops and: Medvedka and Podura.

Spider mite

Description: the body of the spider mite is oval-oblong, 0.3-0.4 mm long. Ticks infect the underside of the leaves, braiding the plant with thin cobwebs. Light yellow dots appear on the affected leaves, then the leaf becomes marbled, turns yellow and dries up if strong reproduction of the pest is allowed, the plant dies. All vegetables of the pumpkin family are affected by spider mites. Spider mites are ubiquitous.

Control measures: in order to lime such a pest, it is necessary to regularly spray the plants with water throughout the day, especially in hot weather
a good result is obtained by spraying plants with an infusion of onion or garlic husks (200 g of husks per 10 liters of water)
it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation
The use of drugs: spraying plants with celtan (chloroethanol), 20% (20 g per 10 l of water) in greenhouses, isophene, 10% or 10% (60 g per 10 l of water) and ground sulfur (300 g per 100 m2)

Melon aphid

Description: the body of the female pest is oval, dark green, 1.25-2.1 mm long. The larvae are yellow-green, with or without wings.
The development of the pest begins on weeds, and then pumpkin seeds are affected. Aphids can be found on the underside of leaves, on shoots, ovaries and flowers. Affected leaves curl up, flowers and leaves fall off. Plant growth slows down and then the plants die.
Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation
The use of drugs: spraying plants with karbofos, 10% or 10% (60 g per 10 l of water) in greenhouses with trichlorometaphos-3 (triphos), 10% (50-100 g per 10 l of water).

Sprout fly

Description: small fly, 5-7 mm long, gray body with a dark longitudinal line on the belly. The larva is white, up to 7 mm long.
The parasite lays eggs under lumps of soil, after 5-10 days larvae appear, which infect germinating seeds and seedlings of the plant.

Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation
Sowing seeds at the optimum time (seeds should be planted shallowly, but very carefully)

Anthracnose

Description: Anthracnose is found most often in greenhouse and greenhouse plants, but its appearance is not excluded in zucchini grown in the open field. This disease affects all organs of the plant, except perhaps the roots. The appearance of anthracnose is accompanied by the formation of yellow-brown spots on the leaves, and on the other organs the spots are depressed and covered with a pink bloom. If the root part of the plant is affected, then it will most likely die.
For the development of the disease, watering is favorable during hot times of the day, in this regard, it should be avoided. High soil and air humidity also contribute to the development of the disease.
Anthracnose also tends to persist on diseased plant debris.
Control measures: careful selection of seedlings, removal of affected plants during the flowering period, it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation
The use of drugs: spraying plants at the first symptoms of the disease with a gray colloidal, 35% paste (40-100 g per 10 l of water) with a Bordeaux mixture (100 g of copper sulfate and 100 g of lime per 10 l of water)
disinfection of greenhouses for harvesting with bleach (200 g per 10 l of water)

Powdery mildew

Description: As a rule, it manifests itself on foliage, to a lesser extent on stems and petioles in the form of rounded white spots of small size (powdery bloom). They increase in size over time and completely cover the leaf with a powdery white bloom, which, in turn, turns yellow, dries out. This is the sporulation of the fungus, which leads to a decrease in the quality of greenery and its yield, as well as to a disruption in the process of photosynthesis. This fungus is a nutrient scavenger. On foliage that is severely affected, cleistocarps (fruit bodies) are formed, which infect the plants the next year. The fungus hibernates on plant debris of various weeds (plantain, sow thistle, etc.). The disease causes the greatest harm when the air humidity is high, during excessive feeding with nitrogen fertilizers, as well as with insufficient and irregular watering. Fungal spores are transferred during the growing season from a diseased plant to a healthy one when watering, caring for the plant, or by the wind.
Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation
Application of preparations: spraying plants at the first signs of damage: gray colloidal - 70% paste, 70% wettable, 80%, 80% granular (20 g per 10 l of water in the open field and 40 g per 10 l of water in protected ground) gray colloidal - 35% paste (sulfaride) (40-100 g per 10 l of water in protected ground) gray ground (300 g per 100 m2) sodium phosphate disubstituted (50 g per 10 l of water) isophene, 10% e. and 10% (60 g per 10 liters of water in greenhouses)
in case of focal spread, cut and destroy the leaves or burn the leaves with ground sulfur (sulfur is applied to the affected areas with a cotton swab)
spray with mullein infusion (1 kg of mullein is poured into 3 liters of water and insisted for 3 days, then filtered and diluted with 1 liter of infusion in 3 liters of water)

White rot

Description: The tissues become covered with a white bloom, and then, softening, rot. Initially, white, and then black, fruiting bodies called sclerotia appear on the affected areas (they are the source of infection and overwinter in the soil). A strong spread of the disease occurs when the air and soil are too humid. Sore spots must be sprinkled with charcoal or fluff lime.
The causative agent of the disease is a fungus. The defeat comes to all parts of plants: fruits, whiskers, leaves, petioles, stems. The tissues that have been affected become licky, become soft and are covered with white mycelium. Black dots appear inside and on the surface of the stems. Plants that have been affected in the root part have leaves that wither and dry out in the future. It is possible to establish that the death of cucumbers is caused by white rot only by examining the stem. The plant has the highest susceptibility to disease during the fruiting phase. For the development of the disease, the increased humidity of the air and soil, thickened plantings, as well as sudden changes in temperature are considered favorable.
Infection persists in the soil and on plant debris. The plant can become infected through air currents, pieces of mycelium during care, mechanical damage, and stomata.
Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, after harvesting, immediately remove plant residues, follow the rules of crop rotation watering plants with warm water application of foliar dressings (1 g of zinc sulfate, 2 g of copper sulfate and 10 g of urea per 10 liters of water)
If the disease has spread strongly, it is necessary to remove the leaves in the dry and hot hours of the day so that the wounds dry out faster. Sprinkle crushed coal or wipe it with a 0.5% solution of copper sulphate on the cut site.

Gray rot

Description: the causative agent is a fungus. It damages leaves and ovaries of plants at high humidity of air or soil and at sudden changes in temperature. The tissue that has been affected becomes wet, soft, brown in color and is abundantly covered with a bloom of gray color. Everything is accompanied by the appearance of black dots. When pollinated, insects can transfer fungal spores to flowers from other flowers, which improves the spread of the disease. Also, the development of the disease is helped by sudden changes in temperature, excess or lack of moisture, watering with cold temperature water or watering at night, lack of trace elements and excess nitrogen.
Plant debris is the main carrier of the fungus. Read also: 7 reasons why garlic turns yellow.

Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, after harvesting, immediately remove plant residues, observe the rules of crop rotation for fertilizing with phosphorus fertilizers, timely remove drying flowers and affected ovaries, use foliar dressings (1 g of zinc sulfate, 2 g of copper sulfate and 10 g of urea per 10 liters of water)

Root rot

Description: Has a characteristic feature - to form constrictions. In this case, the roots and stems become brown and gradually grind, growth stops, and the lower leaves become yellow in color. This disease can lead to complete death of cucumbers. As a rule, it infects weakened plants during changes in day and night temperatures, as well as during watering with cold water. The soil is a repository for infection. For prophylaxis, cucumbers must be watered under the roots twice with an interval of 14 days with a solution of Previcura (per 100 m2 - 40 grams).
The causative agent of the disease (i.e. fungus) persists in the soil and on plant debris
Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, after harvesting, immediately remove plant residues, observe the rules of crop rotation, water the plants with water at a temperature of at least 20 ° C, maintain normal soil moisture, at the first signs of root rot, add soil to the stems to form additional roots, the use of foliar dressings (1 g of zinc sulfate, 2 g of copper sulfate and 10 g of urea per 10 liters of water)

Fusarium wilting

Description: the causative agent of the disease is soil fungi. Plants can be affected at any age. The fungus enters the root system of the plant from the soil and grows in the conducting vessels of the plant. As a result, the affected seedlings wither, the lower part of the stem rot and the plant dies, and the roots rot or dry out. The disease is very harmful.
Spots are formed on the leaves, the tissue between the veins begins to die off. Then, withering, the whole plant dies. The roots and root collar rot, the plant breaks.
Control measures: it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation
replacement of the affected soil in greenhouses

Ascochitosis

Description: Ascochitis is a fungal disease that affects all terrestrial parts of the plant. Its appearance is characterized by the formation of light black spots on the stems and leaves, with pronounced black spots, which are pycnidia of the fungus. All affected parts of the plant quickly turn black, and as a result, become soft and dry out, which leads to the death of the plant. Most often, ascochitosis is affected, the bases and branches of the stems are prone, as a result, they become very fragile and break in the affected areas. With an excessive amount of moisture in the soil, damage to the root part is possible. Excessive moisture, both soil and air at low temperatures leads to the development of ascochitosis... Its infection persists even on plant debris, and zucchini rot.
Control measures: : it is very important to destroy weeds in a timely manner, immediately remove plant residues after harvesting, observe the rules of crop rotation, replace the affected soil in greenhouses
dusting the affected areas of the stem with copper-chalk powder (a mixture of copper sulfate and chalk 1: 1), as well as crushed coal in order to dry the affected tissue and prevent the spread of infection

Brown olive spot

Brown olive spot

Description: It is a fungal disease affecting the fruit. At high air humidity, it also affects seedlings, leaves and stems. Small watery spots form on the fruit. They rapidly increase in size, the skin cracks, gelatinous hardened drops protrude on the surface of the spots. Fruits are bent and young ovaries die. The spots on the leaves are brownish with a lighter border and a light center.
The rapid development of the disease occurs with sudden changes in temperature and in cool rainy summers. Brown spotting in hot summer appears towards the end of the growing season of plants, during the onset of cool nights with a considerable amount of dew.
The spread of the causative agent of the disease occurs in greenhouses with drops of condensed moisture, during irrigation, wind or rain. The infection remains in the soil and plant debris for a long time.
Control methods:
In the greenhouse, it is imperative to change the soil, also ventilate the greenhouses and monitor a moderate amount of watering.
Good results are obtained by treatment with a beard liquid (100 grams of copper sulfate and the same amount of lime).

Bacteriosis

Description: Of all cucumber bacterial diseases, this one is very harmful. The manifestation of the disease occurs on the cotyledons in the form of small brown sores, and on real leaves in the form of angular brown spots. Small brown sores appear on the infected fruit, which cause the fruit to bend. With bacteriosis of the initial stage in the early morning hours, the spots have a dark green color. In the future, they acquire a brown color and, when completely dry, fall through.
In this case, perforated angular holes are formed between the veins of the leaves. Bacteriosis persists on seeds and plant debris. The rapid development of the disease is carried out with sharp changes in night and day temperatures, as well as with high soil and air humidity.
Seeds and plant debris are a source of infection. The spread of the disease is carried out by insects, drops of water and pieces of vegetation tissue.
Control methods:
Diseased fruits and plants must be removed and buried. It is also necessary to observe the fruit change: in one place, zucchini can be grown only once every 3-4 years. Seeds must be treated with a solution of 0.02% zinc sulfate. The seeds are immersed in a solution for a day, and then dried until they are completely free-flowing. At the first manifestations of the disease on the cotyledons, and also secondarily - when it appears on real leaves, it is necessary to treat with Bordeaux liquid (10 grams of lime and the same amount of copper sulfate).
Plants for prevention are treated with 0.4% copper oxychloride or 1% Bordeaux mixture.

Viral diseases

Green speckled mosaic
Description: This disease is most often found among the viral diseases of the cucumber. It is caused by the cucumber virus 2. Young infected leaves lose their green color, some parts of them become yellow-green, and then they become wrinkled. Plants that have been susceptible to infection slow down in growth and are in a state of oppression. The fruits acquire wartiness and mosaic variegated color.
Control methods:
Mandatory replacement of contaminated soil. Seeds should be taken from uninfected plants, soaked before sowing in a solution of 15% trisodium phosphate for an hour, or heat treated.

White mosaic
The white mosaic is caused by the 2a virus. White mosaic is much more harmful than green. Infected cucumbers have yellow and white star-shaped spots on the leaves. In most cases, they become white in color. Only the veins of the leaf retain the green color. Leaves do not wrinkle. The fruits become yellow and white stripes. The causative agents of both mosaics remain in the seeds and on plant debris.
White mosaic control measures do not differ from green mosaic control.


Zucchini

Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo var. Giraumontia) is a bushy variety of hard-bore pumpkin, this plant is a member of the Pumpkin family. Fruits (pumpkins) have an oblong shape, and they can be colored green, greenish-black, yellow or white. The pulp inside the fruit is quite tender. Zucchini is fried, pickled, stewed, canned, and also eaten raw. The homeland of such a vegetable culture is the Oaxaca Valley in Mexico; in the 16th century, zucchini and other plants unusual for the Old World were brought to Europe from there. At first, zucchini was cultivated exclusively in greenhouses, as a rare plant. It wasn't until the 18th century that unripe pumpkins were used for cooking. Since then, this plant has gained great popularity, since its fruits are low in calories, easily digested and have high taste.They are widely used in European cuisine, as well as in dietary nutrition. Hot dishes, salads and preparations for the winter are prepared from them, and it is also recommended to include zucchini in the diet of patients who are recovering, as well as children.


Poorly chosen location

Zucchini will not bear fruit in the place where their "relatives" - cucumbers, pumpkins, melons, watermelons - grew before them. It is recommended to wait at least 4 years before planting zucchini in this place. But zucchini are very fond of the land where potatoes, beets, cabbage, carrots, onions or greens grew before them.

The zucchini got its name from the word "tavern", which came into modern speech from the Turkic languages: originally this was the name of the pumpkin. The same name stuck to the pumpkin in some regions of Ukraine.


Diseases and pests of zucchini

This thread has 7 replies, 1 member, last updated Oksana Gula 1 year, 5 months back.

In this topic, illustrations and descriptions of the most common diseases and pests of zucchini will be collected. The photographs were selected in such a way as to show the most characteristic signs of disorders, diseases and injuries.

Investments:

Powdery mildew

Powdery mildew is ubiquitous. It affects all pumpkin seeds. Winters on weeds. Carried by air currents.

The first signs of the disease are pale yellow spots that appear on the leaves (the lower and upper sides of the leaf can be affected), petioles and stems of the plant. As the spots grow, they become covered with a whitish, powdery coating (conidia of the fungus Erysiphe cichoracearum or Sphaerotheca fuliginea), as a result of which the affected areas become like those sprinkled with flour. Gradually, the leaves turn yellow, may turn brown and become papery. Zucchini fruits are usually not affected by powdery mildew.


Diseases and pests of zucchini - garden and vegetable garden

Diseases and pests of onions (garlic, wild garlic, onions, etc.)

Peronosporosis (downy mildew) is a fungal disease that affects leaves and peduncles. The leaves gradually turn yellow and wither. Bulbs are 2-4 times smaller than healthy plants. The disease is almost always accompanied by black mold.

Control measures. Crop rotation soaking of onion sets in solutions of trace elements, removal of diseased plants and spraying with a mixture of the same trace elements, or polycarbacin, or copper chloroxide (40 g per 10 l of water); heating the bulbs for 8 hours. at 40 ° C cultivation of resistant varieties.

Fusarium (bottom rot) of onions is also a fungal disease that affects onions, leeks and garlic in the ground and during storage. Plants wither and are easily pulled out of the soil. The roots turn brown, covered with a white bloom. During storage, they rot near the bottom.

Measures to combat. The same as with peronosporosis. Destruction of post-harvest residues thorough bulkhead and drying when storing.

Onion crops also suffer from sclerotinosis (white rot), penicillosis (green mold rot), stemphiliosis (black mold), neck rot, etc.

Onion fly - looks like a cabbage fly. The larvae infect the bulb from the bottom side. It rots, the leaves turn yellow and wither.

Control measures. Crop rotation deep digging of the soil in autumn, destruction of affected plants, post-harvest residues and weeds, placing carrots nearby loosening the soil and removing weeds watering the soil near plantings with a solution of sodium chloride (200 g per 10 l of water) dusting with a mixture of tobacco dust and lime (1: 1) at the rate 10 g per 1 m 2 or a mixture of naphthalene and ash (1:10).

Onion moth - Causes significant damage in warm, dry weather. It is a moth about 8 mm long. Appears in June, lays up to 100 single eggs on leaves and flower arrows. The leaves damaged by caterpillars turn yellow and dry up, starting from the tops. Caterpillars often take root in the neck of the onion and the bulb. Plants die at the same time.

Control measures. Almost the same as with the onion fly. Prevention: dusting the soil with a mixture of tobacco dust and ash (1: 1) or sand (1:10).

Stem nematode - a small filamentous translucent worm - affects not only onions, but tomatoes, radishes, parsley, parsnips, peas. Onion begins with shoots. Multi-colored spots appear on the surface of the bulbs, the inner scales are loosened, the roots die off.

Control measures. Crop rotation thermal treatment of onion sets (“bathing” for 5-10 minutes at a temperature of 50 ° C) improvement of chives (soaking in water at a temperature of 40 ° C for 2 hours) collection and destruction of diseased bulbs followed by soil treatment with carbation (200 ml / m 2 to a depth of 15 cm).

Aceria (garlic (tulip) mite) - during the growing season it feeds on leaf juice. In the storehouse, it feeds on the juice of cloves. They turn yellow, wrinkle.

Control measures. Culling diseased bulbs and cloves during planting Harvesting onions in dry weather (after harvesting, the bulbs must be cut and heated at a temperature of 35-37 "C for 5-7 days. Before storage, sprinkle the seedlings with dry chalk - 20 g per 1 kg) removal plant residues and disinfection of the store.

Among other pests there is a tobacco (onion) trippe - see the chapter "The main polyphagous pests", Western onion lurker. Against the first, an infusion and a decoction of creeping mustard are effective (see the chapter "Green Helpers"), against others, in particular, spraying with tobacco broth or infusion of ash (200 g infuse a day in 10 liters of hot water) with soap (40 g) or dusting soil with a mixture of tobacco dust and ash (1: 1). Loosening of row spacings, destruction of plant debris, application of plant insecticides on the testes are mandatory.


Watch the video: Preventing Insect u0026 Fungal Damage on Cucumbers, Squash u0026 Zucchini: Types of Sprays, Journal, Routine


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