Vallota (lat.Vallota) - a genus of bulbous perennials of the Amaryllis family, whose representatives have now been transferred to the genera Cyrtantus and Clivia. These plants originate from the Cape region, located in South Africa, and they were named after the botanist from France Pierre Vallot. In room culture, the beautiful vallot appeared in the 17th century.
Until now, there is no consensus among scientists about which genus these plants should belong to, so we will tell you about both the vallot and the cirtantus, especially since these related plants require the same conditions of detention.
Read more about growing vallotta below.
So, the flower of the vallot is a bulbous plant with an ovoid or pear-shaped pinkish-brown bulb with a massive neck and a rosette of belt-shaped green leaves up to 60 cm long and up to 3 cm wide. A characteristic feature of the vallot is the base of the leaves painted in burgundy color. The houseplant vallotta blooms in spring, summer or autumn, but with good care it can bloom twice a season. The plant forms a hollow peduncle on which from 2 to 9 bright red bell-shaped or funnel-shaped flowers are formed. Such a peduncle lives for no more than five days. The fruit of the vallotta is a capsule that cracks after the seeds ripen.
Vallota prefers to grow on well-lit eastern windowsills, and even direct sunlight is not contraindicated for her. However, in hot weather, when the room temperature rises above 25 ºC, the plant should be shaded from the sun.
In the photo: Growing a vallot in a pot
In the warm season, the vallotta normally reacts to the temperature usual for human habitation - 20-25 ºC, but during the rest period it is kept in a cool room, where the temperature does not exceed 10-12 ºC. The lower temperature threshold for a plant is 5 ºC, but it cannot stay in this cold for a long time. Drafts and sudden temperature changes are contraindicated for the vallot.
Like other bulbous plants, cirtantus needs to be watered regularly, but in moderation, so that the bulbs are frozen and do not start to rot. During the period of active growth, watering is carried out only after the top layer of the soil has dried; in winter, the cooler in the room, the less often watering is required. Watch the leaves of the plant: dying foliage is a sign of improper watering.
In summer, when the temperature in the room rises to 25 ºC and above, the wallot should be regularly sprayed with settled water at room temperature, and so that drops do not fall on the flowers. In winter, the vallotta responds well to washing the leaves with a damp sponge.
From May to mid-autumn, once every two weeks, the cirantus is fed with a solution of organic matter or complex mineral fertilizer for flowering indoor plants; the rest of the time, feeding is not needed for the vallot.
In a spacious pot, numerous babies are formed near the vallotta, taking away nutrition from the mother's bulb, and the plant may not have enough strength to bloom. Therefore, there is no need for frequent transplanting of the vallot. Usually, the container and substrate are changed once every three years, when the roots of the plant no longer fit in the pot.
Each subsequent pot should be 2-3 cm larger than the previous one.
Wallot is grown in a nutritious substrate consisting of three parts of sod land, two parts of peat, two parts of humus and one part of sand. A thick layer of drainage material must be placed on the bottom of the pot.
In the photo: Blooming Vallotta
When transplanting, carefully separate from the nest those bulbs that are ready to move away on their own. Do not bury the upper part of the bulb in the substrate: over time, children will appear on it.
Cyntanthus is propagated by children and seeds. The babies are separated from the mother's bulb and planted in separate containers so that a third of the bulb rises above the surface of the substrate. They take care of them, like an adult plant. Children will bloom in the second or third year.
Vallotta seeds are sown in a moist substrate in mid-autumn. Crops are covered with glass and kept at a temperature of 16-18 ºC. Caring for them consists in regular ventilation and moistening of the soil as needed. Shoots will appear in about a month, and after that the glass is removed, but not immediately, but gradually accustoming the shoots to the room temperature. When the seedlings are six months old, they are dived in separate pots, completely immersing the small onions in the ground. After two years, the bulbs are transplanted into larger pots, burying them in the substrate for an adult vallot only by two-thirds. Vallotta blooms from seeds in the third or fourth year after sowing.
The main problem of vallota is susceptibility to root rot as a result of waterlogging of the substrate. Due to too wet soil, the vallot can also get sick with gray rot. To avoid the defeat of cytantus by fungal diseases, try to observe moderation in moistening the soil, which must be disinfected in the oven, microwave, or treated with a solution of potassium permanganate or fungicide before planting the bulbs in it.
Of the pests, aphids, scale insects and spider mites pose a danger to cytantus. These parasites are destroyed with Aktellik, Aktara or Fitoverm preparations, however, before processing, the scale insects must be removed from the plant with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol, since adults are protected from any poisons by wax armor. Insectoacaricide treatment is best done outdoors, wearing protective clothing, goggles, gloves and a respirator.
There are three species in the genus Vallotta, two of which were transferred to the genus Cyrtantus, and the third to the genus Clivia.
or sublime cyrtanthus (Cyrtanthus elatus), or beautiful crinum (Crinum speciosum), or amaryllis purpurea (Amaryllis purpurea) - a plant with dark olive xiphoid leaves about 45 cm long and up to 3 cm wide.The hollow peduncles about 30 cm long grow from the center of the bulb and bear from 3 to 6 flowers up to 8 cm long, colored in various shades from orange to dark -red. The corolla of the flower consists of 6 petals.
Famous varieties of this species:
In the photo: Vallota speciose
Is a perennial bulbous plant with narrow leathery bright green leaves up to 30 cm long.Each inflorescence contains from 2 to 8 small red bell-shaped flowers, reaching a diameter of 5-6 cm.
Also popular are the hybrids of Pink Diamond Wallot with light pink flowers and Cream Beauty with beige petals, which is nicknamed the autumn lily.
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The ariocarpus plant belongs to the Cactus family. It is a succulent with a low and slightly flattened stem, which can be brown or gray. A low stem in diameter can reach 12 centimeters, its surface is covered with papillae, and areoles are already on them. The needles growing from the areoles are rudimentary (underdeveloped). In diameter, campanulate flowers can reach about 50 mm. They can be colored red, yellow or white. In nature, this plant can be found in the southern part of North America. The genus Ariocarpus unites about 10 species.
Amaryllis is characterized by a pronounced dormant period, during which only the bulb dies off completely and remains. During this period, the pot with it is stored at a relatively cool temperature. It is approximately + 10-13 degrees at low air humidity. It is quite another matter during the growing season. During this period, a temperature of + 20-25 degrees is suitable for amaryllis, that is, the usual room temperature. However, there is a small nuance.
Advice. In order to achieve the greatest probability of flowering and an increase in its duration, it is desirable to create conditions such that the night temperature is 5-6 degrees lower than the daytime. In this, amaryllis is similar to phalaenopsis.
During the growing season, the lighting of the amaryllis should be at least 14 hours a day. In this case, the light should be as bright as possible. Like most houseplants, direct sunlight can cause significant damage to amaryllis. Therefore, it is better to place it near the windows of the east or west orientation. When placed near southern windows, it must be protected from the scorching sun.
The first time, watering for the sprouted leaves, it is advisable to carry out with warm water and then carry out only when the earth dries up, but make sure that there is no "acidification". And during the rest period, do not water at all.
The level of air humidity for amaryllis is desirable medium. But if the temperature of the content exceeds the recommended and the air dries up, then it is recommended to humidify it.
I do not advise you to spray amaryllis leaves. Limit yourself to rubbing the leaves with a damp cloth. To humidify the air, it is better to place the amaryllis pot on a pallet with wet expanded clay or place such a pallet next to the plant. In this case, it is better to fill it with damp moss. If desired, you can use any other method of air humidification.
Amaryllis is fed only during the growing season. Experienced flower growers, who have in their arsenal many different components for fertilizers, feed him with mullein infusion. But for novice growers it is better to use ready-made fertilizers for bulbous plants. In this case, be sure to pay attention to the nitrogen content in such fertilizer. It doesn't have to be big. Otherwise, the foliage will be lush and the flowering will be scarce.
This period is very important when growing amaryllis. If the plant is deprived of it, then the bulb will be depleted very quickly, and as a result, it will grow poorly and, of course, bloom worse. It is necessary to prepare amaryllis for the dormant period immediately after flowering. Feeding stops completely, and watering gradually decreases in frequency and volume. When the entire aerial part has withered, it is cut off, and the pot with the bulb is moved to a dry, cool place.
The transplant can be carried out either after the flowering of the amaryllis, or at the end of the dormant period. On average, the transplant is carried out every three years, but if the pot is clearly small, then it can be done earlier. In the intervals between transplants, after a dormant period, it is advisable to renew the top layer of soil in the pot.
Advice. If you are just planning to start an amaryllis, then seriously consider the choice of the bulb. It should be flat, without traces of mechanical damage and traces of decay. Be sure to smell it. It shouldn't smell unpleasant. The optimal size of an amaryllis bulb for planting is approximately 7 centimeters.
Take the same care when choosing a pot. The aerial part of the amaryllis is quite heavy and, despite the earthen lump, the light plastic pot can easily turn over. Therefore, it is better to opt for a heavy ceramic pot. Moreover, it allows air to pass to the roots much better. The size of the amaryllis pot is directly related to the size of the bulb. It should be selected in such a way that from the onion planted in the center, from its edge to the edge of the pot, there is no more than 3 centimeters. Planting in an unnecessarily large pot will slow down the flowering period. Amaryllis are often planted in a group of 3 plants in a large pot. In this case, the same rule is observed - the distance between the bulbs must be at least 3 centimeters.
An earthen mixture for transplanting and planting amaryllis can be taken ready-made, for bulbous plants. You can cook it yourself. The components of such a soil are simple and affordable.
Before planting the amaryllis bulb, thoroughly wash the pot, or even better, sterilize it. Also sterilize planting soil and drainage. Examine the bulb, remove the old dark scales. It is advisable to soak it for 30 minutes in a solution of any fungicide before planting. Then dry it.
The amaryllis bulb should be planted in such a way that a third of it is above the ground.
This species has a long and thick stem. Most often, the stem reaches about 50 millimeters in diameter. In such a plant, the papillae are elongated and thin, and golden spines grow on them. A distinctive feature of this species is that it has a crocheted central thorn. It also has very strong branching. During flowering, white rather large flowers appear on the bush. After pollination, berries are formed on this cactus.
This type is most popular among florists. The not very large short stem of this cactus is colored dark green, and its shape is cylindrical. In this species, many shoots are formed on the side of the flower. Flowering lasts quite a long time, or rather, about 6 months. During the flowering period, flowers of a deep pink color are formed on the bush. Pay special attention to watering this species. The fact is that its stem has a soft structure, and therefore abundant and frequent watering is contraindicated for it. If properly cared for, this plant will be very resistant to adverse weather conditions. He is not afraid of lowering the air temperature to minus 7 degrees.
This species differs from the rest in that it grows very actively. On the surface of the greenish stems there are a huge number of white thorns. As the plant grows, a bush is formed, which can reach a width of about 15 cm. Flowering does not differ in its duration, but it is quite effective.Large yellow flowers with a very pleasant smell are formed on the bush. After flowering, large gray fruits are formed on the cactus.
Unlike other species, this cactus has a very unusual spherical stem. Its surface is covered with many yellowish spines. When grown at home, such a cactus blooms regularly. It produces large beautiful flowers, the petals of which are painted in a pink tint, while the core is dark. This species, like the others, is resistant to both heat and cold. If the bush is provided with good and proper care, then even sudden changes in temperature will not harm it.
The short stem of this cactus is only about 60 millimeters long. Hard, hook-shaped spines surround thin and soft hairs, which are collected in bunches. During flowering, small creamy or white flowers form on the bush. This species is quite resistant to adverse weather conditions. If you take care of the plant correctly, then even a slight drop in temperature will not harm it.
This species is one of the most popular, and it grows well in indoor conditions. A not very large stem reaches about 50 millimeters in height. It has an unusual spherical shape, and its surface is covered with brown or white hairs. In width, an adult bush reaches about 15 cm. During flowering, pink or white flowers are formed on the plant. This species is highly resistant to unfavorable weather conditions, and if it is properly looked after, even not very large frosts will not harm it.
The bush of this species is small. Its stem shape is similar to a ball. This species forms several not very large groups, which reach about 10 cm in height and in diameter. The stem of this plant has a dense pubescence, which consists of white thorns. During flowering, spectacular red flowers are formed on the bush. This cactus is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to temperature.
This species got its name due to the fact that there are white hairs between the papillae. It differs from other species in that it contains milky juice. It can be detected simply by breaking the papilla or stem. This species has 6–13 radial spines and 6–13 brownish or yellow spines. During flowering, yellow flowers appear on the bush, the length of which reaches 20 mm. This species is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to temperature. If he is well and properly looked after, he will not be afraid of both heat and cold.
This succulent plant grows quite well indoors. The length of the bush in this species can reach about 50 mm, and in diameter - up to 30 mm. On the surface of the rounded stem there are small tubercles, as well as many white thorns, which makes the bush look "hairy". Flowering is observed in winter and spring, and it lasts from December to May. Bell-shaped flowers reach about 20 mm in diameter, and they can be painted in a white or cream shade. This plant is not afraid of both heat and cold. But best of all in indoor conditions, this cactus grows and develops at a temperature of 10-15 degrees.
This species grows and develops very well in indoor conditions. Its stem reaches about 20 millimeters in diameter, and its length can reach up to 20 centimeters. In this species, the stem is elongated and soft, with small tubercles on its surface. There are also golden spines on the stem, which are collected in not very large rosettes. This species blooms from April to June, at which time yellow or white flowers appear on the plant. It is recommended to grow this species in a cool place (10-15 degrees).
The flower does not like direct rays, preferring bright, but diffused light. Possessing sufficient shade tolerance, anthurium will be able to grow on a dark northern window, but the constant lack of light can adversely affect its growth and abundance of flowering. Windows of any other direction will be optimal. If there is a lack of natural light for year-round decorativeness, additional lighting can be used.
The plant does well at room temperatures. Native to tropical latitudes, anthurium prefers warmth. In summer, +25 degrees are optimal for him, and in winter - not colder than +16 degrees. You should not keep a flower pot near hot batteries. He will also not like cold drafts and sudden temperature changes.
Anthurium needs moist air, so it needs a humidifier. You can use spraying or install the container with the plant on a pallet with wet expanded clay. But the soil in the pot should be protected from excess moisture. When using a spray bottle, you do not need to direct it at the leaves, and even more so at the inflorescences - the water can leave plaque stains on them.
The plant needs a lot of moisture, but it is important to protect it from overflow. The excess water collected in the sump should be discarded regularly. Anthurium should be watered after the top layer of the soil has dried: overdrying the earthen coma will also not benefit the flower.
For anthurium, use only soft rain or settled, slightly warm water. Limestone can lead to yellowing of its leaves. The abundance of watering varies depending on external conditions. In the heat, the rate is increased, and in cool periods, it is reduced. In the summer, anthurium is watered every 2-3 days. In summer, it is advisable to spray the plant and make sure that dust does not accumulate on the leaves, it must be washed off. In winter, once a week will be enough.
It is better to cover the roots that appear on the surface with moss, which should be moistened when watering.
The ideal soil should be slightly acidic and combine lightness and nutritional value. Broken brick, cones or charcoal are often added to it. This makes the soil more breathable. Specialized formulations for aroid or orchids are also suitable.
Anthurium is fertilized twice a month, but only during the growth period: in spring and summer. To do this, you can use top dressing for orchids or aroids.
For healthy growth and abundant flowering, anthurium needs regular transplants. Young plants need to be replanted annually, adults - half as often. This is done to renew the composition of the soil.
The shape of the pot is selected depending on the purpose of growing the anthurium. A compact narrow container will promote flowering, and in a large and wide one, the plant will better form "children". During transplants, they are seated in separate pots.
As the anthurium matures, its lower leaves begin to wither and expose the trunk. From above, the plant releases new foliage, but it becomes smaller, and over time, the flower still loses its external beauty. Rejuvenating the plant will help to correct the situation: you need to cut and root its top.
In order to make anthurium bloom, it is necessary to observe proper flower care at home. In addition, it is necessary to provide the plant with constant feeding and fertilizers.
If, after all our tips for caring for the anthurium, it still has not bloomed, then we recommend reading a separate article: why does the anthurium not bloom?
Usually, for the reproduction of the plant, shoots are used - "children" or division of the bush. The easiest way to do this is during spring transplants. But in working with anthurium, you need to be careful: the sap of the plant is poisonous and can cause irritation.
A large bush is divided with a sharp knife. To avoid the development of diseases, all the resulting sections are covered with crushed coal. Each part is planted in a separate pot. At first, such a plant will need moderate watering: in waterlogged soil, it will take root less well.
The second common breeding method is by rooting a part of the stem with a leaf and an aerial root. Such a stalk begins to grow very quickly in a new place.
The most difficult method is seed reproduction. To get planting material, the anthurium flower must be pollinated in the first days of its appearance. This can be done by rolling the cotton swab over the surface of the cob. If several anthuriums grow in a pot at once, you can try cross-pollination. The procedure is repeated up to 3 times over several days. After some time, berries should be tied on the cob. But the ripening of its fruits is not fast and can take a whole year.
Ripe seeds are cleaned of pulp, washed and kept a little in a solution of potassium permanganate. After that, they are immediately planted, lightly pressing them to the ground. Otherwise, they will quickly lose their germination. After planting, the soil with seeds is moistened from a sprayer, and then placed in an impromptu greenhouse. The sprouts may appear in a couple of weeks. When they form several true leaves, they are cut open, repeating the procedure after a couple of months. Grown up anthuriums with 5-6 true leaves can be planted in individual pots. Young plants begin to bloom only in the 3rd year of life.
Vallota, accustomed to the alternation of short and rare torrential rains with long droughts, can withstand a lot at home. She is not capricious and would rather forgive the flower grower for forgetfulness than an excessive love of watering and feeding. From such wet care, the vallot can get sick or even die.
Overfilling is much worse than underfilling. In a forced drought, the fire lily will try to slow down its growth, maybe 2-3 leaves will dry out, but the onion itself will live and flourish until you remember your flower. It is almost impossible to kill a walloth with a drought. But it is quite possible to bring to a fatal disease by regularly flooding the soil. The delicate onion is easy to rot.
Vallota prefers rain or melt water. But if there is none, filtered or separated is suitable. But certainly a little warmed up, 2-3 degrees warmer than room temperature.
Assess the condition of the soil before using the watering can. The top layer is dry - water. It is still wet - do not pour water, you will make it worse. Water more often in the spring and summer. After flowering, gradually increase the dry periods. During the winter rest, limit watering to a minimum, only so that the leaves do not wither and die - the vallot is painful about their loss. Be sure to remove water from the tray, "wet feet" at low temperatures will lead to flower disease.
Before and during flowering, support the wallot with dressings. She will love liquid complexes for flowering plants (they have less nitrogen). Add fertilizers to irrigation water every two weeks, diluting a little more than recommended in the instructions.
Some growers make up a special "menu" for the vallotta. For example, regular sugar is used as a top dressing, pour half a teaspoon on the soil every 2-3 months. And Vallotta, as they write on the forums, is very fond of beer. After watering the beer, the plant seems to come to life, the greens become brighter. But you shouldn't abuse alcohol and sweets.
Vallota, which is properly looked after, will definitely grow a peduncle
A healthy and adult (from 3 years old) vallota blooms once or twice a year. Each flower lives on average for about five days. But the buds do not bloom together, but gradually. And there are up to 12 of them on one peduncle. So the flowering of the vallotta is a very bright and rather long sight.
Fire lily blooms beautifully
But the vallotta does not always please with its flourishing. The plant suddenly starts to be capricious. Sometimes the florist is lost in conjecture, what does the Vallotte not like? For annual flowering, some conditions must be met:
If you overcame all difficulties and were happy with the flowering of the vallotta, prepare it for rest. After the flowers wither, wait until the peduncle dries up, and only then cut it off. And then get down to creating conditions in which the vallot can accumulate strength before a new heyday.
Whether your wallot bloomed or refused - it doesn't matter. In winter, usually from the end of January to March inclusive, the plant seems to take a vacation. At this time, it is very little watered, not fertilized, put in a cool place. Deciduous varieties completely lose their leaves, their bulbs are placed in a dark place. And evergreens preserve greenery. These leaves are very necessary for the wallot. Do not cut them off, but help the plant turn green, albeit not so brightly. The task of the grower is to water the flower in a very metered manner, so as to prevent rot and support the leaves. In winter, the vallotta also loves the sun, keep this in mind and provide the plant with at least artificial light when there is a lack of natural light.
If a white cobweb appeared on the leaves, the plant was attacked by a spider mite. This is the most dangerous pest of the vallotta. You can get rid of it by washing the leaves with warm water.
In winter, with excessive watering, gray rot may appear.
According to popular belief, the vallot will bring comfort and family well-being to the house. She suppresses negativity and gives only positive emotions.